Resources: How To’s & Best Practices

RESOURCES: ARTICLES, PHOTOS, AND HOW-TO – Information for Consumers, Providers and others to do captioning and also to do advocacy. CCAC advocates for quality captions for live events and all media, including live streams, everyplace. Also see the Advocacy tab above for that page with more items you can use to educate others. Join us in using #CaptionEverything wherever you can. 

More selected photos of captioning “in action” at bottom of page. If used, citing CCAC web address required! CCACaptioning.orgCART Austria con -

Playing globally, the CCAC Film with this article is a great advocacy and educational resource.

December 2018: ITU paper about Remote Captioning, see

2020: Tools for film makers (e.g. students) to add captioning include and and YouTube for being able to edit the auto-captions or for uploading your own transcript and having the time stamps created automatically which can later be adjusted. HandBrake is a free desktop app for embedding closed or open captions. Also, Aegisub.

2019 – Have we shown you this good video about LIVE CAPTIONING yet? (aka CARTCaptioning and Real Time Captioning and Live Event Captioning ) – (from Univ. of WA) 

HOW TO FIND A CAPTIONING PROVIDER FOR LIVE EVENT CAPTIONING (CARTCaptioning) FOR SCHOOLS, MEETINGS, AND FOR MEDIA, VIDEOS, WEBINARS. Many have no idea how or where to begin. Some ideas here – tell us if one works for you please:

  1. Contact your City and State Offices/Departments of Disabilities, Services for Older Adults, and Education/Schools. They should have a list of Captioning Providers.
  2. Get in touch with and
  3. Contact your State Court Reporters Association – they know about CARTcaptioning also
  4. Contact your local University’s disability services
  5. Try using
  6. Find provider names here:
  7. Contact local HLAA and ALDA groups (hearing loss groups)
  8. There are also several provider groups on Facebook – search for captioning, CART providers, captioning providers, realtime or live captioning
  9. Google Captioning Providers/Companies.
  10. Pricing varies quite a lot depending on hours involved, location, content, on-site or remote service, etc, Ask the Provider and they’ll tell you about what is needed and hopefully be able to test it all prior to the event.
  11. If your State is on the Sprint RCC list, an individual can use that relay conference calling to have live captioning, see 

Note: There are many machine (automated) systems online now also, and on mobiles. They vary in quality. If the sound input from all voices is good enough, they may serve some situations. (Information here:

Also to note please: Caution with machine systems that claim 95% accuracy. That measure is a different sort than is used by human trained captioning providers (who can reach 95-98% accuracy). We’re told that if you measure the same way, then machine accuracy at best is actually about 80%. It’s a matter of what things are counted. There’s a model that is more recently being used to compare human and machine captioning – info here:

New Provider Organization (2019) – Global Alliance of Speech-to-Text Captioning created this information sheet on different forms of captioning and how to prepare for the service:

2019 – Student recently sent us this site to publish – financial resources to check out:



DITTO TO ABOVE FOR WASHINGTON CAP ALSO – BRAVO – information on same slide presentation here. Does this link open for everyone?


Additions, edits, corrections or comments?  Send them to Machine systems have pro’s and con’s – some work for some voices best, in some but not other situations best, and have different features and details to explore and try. (New CCAC resource, August 2018, with thanks to Mathew Call of, and L. Storck, founder of the CCAC.)

HOW TO DOWNLOAD A YOUTUBE VIDEO TO ADD CAPTIONS – the link downloads any video, it does not add captioning – to add CC, see below or google “how to caption YT videos” and select from several instructional sites. and

HOW TO DO LIVE CAPTIONING FOR MUSEUMS, PARK SERVICE TOURS, CITY TOURS – WALKING CAPTIONING! HERE’S A SUGGESTION AND ALSO READ WAY DOWN TO OPEN THE RESOURCE PAGE FOR CAPTIONING IN THE COMMUNITY: A tour guide could wear a wired or Bluetooth headset, paired with a tablet or phone on their person and they would call into an off-site CART provider. (Alternatively they could also just pipe audio to an on site CART provider if they have those resources.) The “call” to the off-site CART provider need not be a traditional cellular phone call they could use any of the many VoIP services to make the call. (So they don’t need cell service/coverage just good WiFi.) Then the cart provider would use a service such as Streamtext or to push the captions to any internet connected device. ( The museum really should have a locked down iPad mini or Android tablet for this, though consumers personal devices would work too. A QR code could be available to make it easier to connect to the WiFi and load the site with the captions.

How to do SPORTS VENUE CAPTIONING – information about live captioning, LED’s, and more:

HOW TO: Adding a transcript to your PODCASTS – see

Need AIR TRAVEL ACCESS?  GO TO the ADVOCACY TAB and also the blue link here to read more and get involved. Go to: with updates and good information.

HOW TO DO MEDIA CAPTIONING – need info? See our latest update of good information here — 


this site,, you can get information on how the formatting works…you should be able to just use the timecodes you typed out and create the .srt file that way.
In the future, I recommend using YouTube’s automatic timing feature to upload your transcript and have it add timecodes. They do a good job and you can always edit it afterwards. Just save your transcript as a .txt file and add it to your video.

RELAY CONFERENCE CALLS (RCC) – Captioned by Sprint in USA – for all federal employees, and in NJ, Hawaii, NC, AZ, FL, CO, WV and Virginia. Is your state there?

YOUTUBE LIVE BROADCAST – CAPTION IT! GO TO the CART Captioning link of StreamText as usual and enter the URL of the YouTube page. The customer (consumer) with the YouTube account will need to provide that to you. Then you run the event like any other event. That is the easy part. You Tube does not support deletes so you need to make sure your translations etc have completed before they are sent out. For example, using CaseCat you can use hold strokes to do this.

FACEBOOK LIVE STREAM – CAPTION IT! LEARN more about STREAMCAST from StreamText. With Streamtext, CC for live visual is in separate screen. With other systems, it is possible to see them inside the live video (e.g. using “1fusion of 1capapp”). Keep reading:

From a Provider:

The key to integrating captioning into FB Live stream is the use of EEG Falcon (iCap).
Essentially Falcon is a virtual encoder that allows for the RTMP video stream and captioning to be merged before going out to Facebook Live. There is a cost involved in setting up Falcon account through EEG, but this is the only true integrated captioning solution for Facebook Live. The guys over at EEG are extremely helpful!


FROM DCMP – check this resource out too –

Join the CCAC today, don’t wait. Use the CCAC active members’ forum online for questions, suggestions, support, fun, and captioning advocacy, for early information on all sorts of good captioning news, and to be eligible for Free Live Captioning for an event you want to attend. 

USE the CCAC FLYER for your meetings, news, conferences – help others JOIN the CCAC – Flyer is here:


AND THIS FILM from CCAC (JUNE 2015) about Captioning-


HOW TO BEGIN CAPTIONING TRAINING PROGRAMS –  This document has a new final page with MEDIA Captioning Training Ideas, Free DIY systems online, Transcript Guidelines, and more. 

CCAC is not a captioning provider – not a captioning company. We are advocates – to advocate (ask for), educate, and raise awareness about the needs for much more quality captioning on all media, everyplace, and for live event captioning too.

From a consumer when CCAC offered the CaptionMatch service for five years. CaptionMatch is on hold (closed for now) -our volunteer energies are stretched and busy with day to day advocacy.  We’re happy it helped many for five years, thank the two volunteers who created it and managed it (at times, many hours to explain to new users what captioning entails), and it also helped a few providers to find extra work, e.g. -“Huge thank you to CCAC Captioning for connecting me with a CART service for our event. I used a remote CART service and was able to follow the other speakers! Worked great! ” 

Professional captioning services, for media, or live for meetings and events, cost money — not over- costly however! Captioning deserves a budget line in your planning like anything worthwhile, from day one, not as an after-thought. How to pay for it? Fundraising in the usual ways, or new creative ways. CCAC will brainstorm with you.

Regarding Live Captioning for any meeting or event, in general, an hour of quality real time live captioning costs around 75-120 dollars/hour, sometimes less, sometimes more. Professionals are trained, experienced, certified, and helpful in preparations and planning with you before during and after the event, The topic or content (simple or complex) may determine pricing also. Quality counts! Access and inclusion pays.

Free Online Course for Video Captioning – and also this vlog from November 2014: – detailed, short lectures, worth watching!


TUTORIAL for YouTube video captioning: and also

FOR VIMEO videos – read here:



ALL ABOUT CAPTION FILES! good article here,, October 2015 from a captioning company.


Any others? Anyplace in the world? Email us.

Also see this company’s listing of DIY media captioning information, – more DIY information from the CCAC below and on links.

HOW TO FIND THE FCC VIDEO CAPTIONING RULES: FCC Video (Internet) Captioning Rules in USA –


From DCMP: and also “google” best practices captioning to find WGBH info, various University info, and much more. Or ask the CCAC.

From NCRA: if your Live Event Captioning Provider (CART provider) is not doing all s/he should for your full access and inclusion. Let CCAC know also.

TECHNOLOGY HINT FOR ONLINE LIVE EVENTS (e.g. Web Conferences): to show live captioning with the video stream (not in separate window) – StreamText can be integrated with Adobe Connect videoconferencing so viewers can see video and transcript at the same time. Plus reporter has control over who sees the transcript. It’s around $300 a year. Talk to StreamText directly.

CCAC is a 501(3)(c) official non-profit organization. Contributions are normally tax-deductible. We are all volunteer citizen advocates. Join today.

HOW TO BEGIN THEATER LIVE CAPTIONING (with thanks to Geva Theater, Rochester, NY who provided this summary of recent inclusion of captioning, Oct 2015): Using a scrolling LED sign with stand that sits house right of the stage and is connected to a laptop that is loaded with the software CaptionView and Microsoft Word (scripts converted from PDF files to Word documents so they can be properly edited, formatted, and loaded into CaptionView). Start up costs to bring captioning in house were around $10,000 and annual operation and maintenance costs about $3,000 for a 7-show season (adding 1 additional stage, 3 additional productions, and increasing each of the 10 productions from 1 to 3 captioned performances will increase the annual cost to about $4,500-$5,0000 total per year), with about 8 in-house operators. The start up costs were covered by donations and support from local hearing loss groups. Another source to learn similar methods is StageText in the UK and TDF in NY (theater development foundation).

PERSONAL STORIES, YOUR OWN INCLUDED are one of the best sorts of advocacy. As well as asking for captioning regularly. Need ideas? Join the CCAC! You belong.

SURVEY OF LIVE CAPTIONING METHODS (machines and systems) informative study from 2012 published late in 2014 by CCAC provider member in Germany: –

HOW TO LEARN MORE ABOUT CAPTIONING FOR LIVE EVENTS ONLINE: More organizations are learning how to STREAM events live online also with quality LIVE captioning! You can do this too, you can ask for it, don’t leave us out! Stream your events, conferences and more with quality captioning online. Your audience will grow, learn more, and remember it. Search engines will find your organization.


Hot Topic: Live event online with live Captioning online at same time, not so hard to do! Read


ADVOCACY ARTICLES for wide distribution: please include CCAC web address, in all distribution – 1. The Hearing Journal: Benefits of Captioning. 2. Hearing Health & Technology Matters; The Case for Captioning  also this one – 3. and also 4. The Power of Captioning –


Web Access – general guidelines for all web content to be accessible to all (included here to note captioning requirements:!

EDUCATION: article about effectiveness of RTC (real time captioning) in education. Very important study! We had a chat with the researcher.  The data shows that RTC (simulated CART) improves learning (measured by memory test) both for deaf students, and hearing students too! Nine percent improvement and 149% improvement (hearing and deaf respectively). Steinfeld, A. (1999). The Benefit to the Deaf of Real-Time Captions in a Mainstream Classroom Environment. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.


Background of CCAC Mission: Globally, newest figures are that 1/5 persons has a hearing loss or deafness – mega-millions of citizens. That’s 20% of the world. Many more need quality captioning due to language or other concerns (autism, tinnitus, translations, search engines). Captioning is language! It’s not just another device or machine. Understand the vitality and necessity for inclusion of quality captioning universally, see Also, millions of others, hearing people included, depend on captioning for learning languages, literacy, inclusion with learning differences, and business reasons. Without captioning, millions are excluded and disrespected. (See: for the Johns Hopkins research outlining that 1/5 people have a hearing loss – a number that reaches 48 million now in USA alone.) This literature review, estimates the number of people using SL (sign language) in the USA (deaf/hoh and also others who are not deaf or hoh such as families, teachers, interpreters) – varies from 100,000 to 15 million – a huge range (because a total here includes some deaf and many who serve them with SL). Other reports use the number of 500,000 SL users in the USA.. Even taking the very high estimate, it is smaller than popular and press understanding when compared to a total of about 48 million in the USA with hearing loss and deafness. Using an estimate that 5% of this total of 48 million (2.6 million, fitting into the range mentioned) may use signing primarily (new research needed), in the USA alone, over 45 million citizens can benefit from quality captioning in many everyday situations. They do not use sign language! Other countries will have similar percentages. There’s a huge and unfulfilled need to include captioning universally for equality.

2012 Report of interest: showing 3/5% of deaf/hoh nationally (and by cities in USA), e.g. if 3.5% of deaf and hoh in total, SLusers in total population guesstimate of about 1/5 of that (0.7%)? or, conservatively, will be less than 2%.

More on statistics (May 2016): Many ask us about numbers of deaf/hoh and numbers of SL users. In USA and in UK, it’s generally reported that from 1-2% of all deafhoh use SL and the rest of millions of deaf/hoh do not. These others do not all need Captioning yet many or most do and benefit from captioning. Add millions of others without any hearing loss who use captioning, and numbers are important. In USA there are about 50 million with hearing loss/deafness (same figure used by HLAA). See above for the reference.

In UK it’s reported that there are 50,000 SL users among 10 million in the population. See made by BSL Bridge.That is 0.5% yet may be an underestimate.

The number of deaf/hoh and the number who use SL is not the same. There will be many others without deafness/hearing loss who SL (teachers, families, agencies, etc.) is a reference from Gallaudet that puts the numbers of SL users in the USA (all, not only deaf/hoh) at from 500000 to 2 million (a wide range) and smaller than above citation. Even then the highest figure is 4% (including all, not only deaf/hoh).

The bottom line is that advocacy for your method of communication is important, whatever it is. We see the media and many leaders globally suggesting directly or indirectly that SL is the language of most deaf/hoh and this is not so. It’s important for millions of other deaf/hoh good people to advocate for quality captioning in all places needed, and educate others too.

CART ADVOCACY – Important court case – CCAC member is participant  – – there are few court cases about CART Captioning that we know about. One other is in process now. If you have additional information, please email to us, – so far, the courts (in USA) support live captions as required by ADA laws for equal communication access.

summary of CCAC objectives and activities that you can use in your own blog or newsletter. Newer articles on the main advocacy page on this website.

Information about disability rights – the Law and re ADA and the laws, see below also, and this NAD page too – APRIL 2013: Given the importance of the CVAA and rules that apply starting now for Internet captioning, we put this good summary from the FCC about TV captioning here: You are invited into CCAC membership discussions going on now, and updates or corrections to this welcome via email to the CCAC. And this important page also for the schedule: extending out to 2016 for implementation. ==

CART  is called STTR in the UK (speech to text reporting).

FAQs about CART CAPTIONING  – Worth reading about LIVE CAPTIONING (CART, STTR, Text Interpreting, OC) This resource from CCAC is one of the few online about Open Captioning. Many pages about closed captioning (for media).

HOW TO UNDERSTAND “REMOTE CAPTIONING” SERVICES: A video about “remote CART” – many real time captioning providers are now offering CART from a distance – they can provide similar real time live speech-to-text by sending their output to your own location, your computer or wireless device, in any part of the world! See more below, and this CCAC video too:

AND MORE REMOTE CART Information from CCAC Volunteers – What You Need: 

NOTE TO ALL: the Audio for remote service is very important! Skype is routinely used, but sometimes “breaks down.” Other to-be-set-up-and-tested-in-advance-also” systems include: phone for all speakers, google hangout, and “Join Me” (free or paid versions). Please send us other choices you use for Remote Live Captioning.

To Do Remote:

On the consumer’s side: * An internet connection, preferably wired to send audio. Can be wireless to receive captions. * At least one computer, though two (one connected to sound system to send audio, one close to consumer to receive captions via web browser) is often ideal. (or wireless device such as ipad, iphone, other mobiles) * A direct line in to a sound system or, in a pinch, a good quality microphone. * Voice over IP software such as Skype or Google Chat (we are told that if remote CART is for one person only, at times the iphone or other mobile can also act as the audio, with speaker on and a phone call if that is steady enough – not losing connection, etc.)

On the provider’s side: * An internet connection. Wired is strongly preferred. * Steno machine and software (e.g. Streamtext, though there are other options) * Good quality headphones * The same voice over IP software used on the consumer’s side If there are multiple consumers, they can each view captions on their own computers/tablets/smartphones, or the captions can be displayed to the entire room via a projection screen (or large monitor). There is usually no additional charge from Streamtext unless there are more than 50 views from separate devices at one time. Using a phone line is being phased out in favor of VOIP connections due to lower cost and better quality (voice over Internet) though sometimes at the expense of dependability (since connections can drop more easily than over phone line). If a school or other event has an AV system also (audiovisual), it is preferred in terms of audio quality and usually an AV person can handle the connections without too much difficulty. The AV person needs to stay and monitor the connection to make sure that the connection hasn’t dropped; if it does, they’ll need to accept the new connection when the CART provider redials. When the consumer is using the computer sending the audio, they’re able to accept the redial by themselves, and are usually a little quicker on the uptake, since they’re essentially monitoring the captions themselves already. Thanks to Mirabai Knight,, for above information. She is a CCAC Member and Professional Provider in the New York area and also provides

REMOTE CART continued – a nice video prepared for the CCAC by another provider:

UNOFFICIAL CCAC LISTING OF SYSTEMS USED BY PROVIDERS FOR REMOTE CART, 2013. Provider is at a distance anyplace, using Internet (cellular or wireless) and consumer reading real time text on laptop, ipad, iphone, or similar) — Streamtext, 1CapApp, Teamviewer, Total Eclipse, Teleview, Gather Place 4; free,, Webex, Gotomeeting…… Skype is often used for audio. Older page of info for remote here: (We invite updates or further information about CART, Remote CART, or any captioning systems.)


From a CCAC Provider Member – For the record, CART providers are certified starting at 180 WPM, but most professionals believe this is far too slow a speed for a competent provider and 220 WPM with 99.9% accuracy (or one error/omission every four pages) is a good baseline, though for more challenging jobs, a solid 240 WPM is even better. Some speakers go as high as 260 or 280 WPM (usually in short bursts)…when that happens, most CART providers will have to condense or paraphrase somewhat to get the most important material, similarly to what C-Print or Typewell does. CART providers are able to maintain verbatim accuracy until that threshold, nearly 100 WPM higher than the text-expansion services can manage. Re-speaking and voice recognition “CART” is also being used now. Whether this is to be called CART/STTR also remains controversial and undecided. These are automated systems using a person and a machine trained to the one person’s voice. Speed and accuracy standards, we are told, are being developed. CCAC welcomes updates and edits to anything on this page via email.


  • Things to Know About Broadcast Captioning (broadcast captioning is not CART, yet there is some overlap, e.g. streaming CART online for real time communication access; broadcasting a video online with real time CART on-site also displayed for Internet viewers and participants). Broadcast captioning is also called Media Captioning.


Research and Data: The CCAC also engages in research activities and collects data related to captioning services, needs, or advocacy. One result of this is the database of CART and Captioning Technologies, available on the link here.

TELEVISION CAPTIONING IN THE USA: – new quality rules after an FCC order from February 2014. We are talking here about requirements for news stations that reach small areas, and how the recent FCC rules affect those stations.  (Small means smaller population, and/or revenue of under a certain amount). Here’s a quick summary:

First, almost all channels are required to caption 20 hours/day, 6a-2a.   There are exceptions, including new stations (they have four years to comply), channels with revenue under $3 million, and channels that are not in English or Spanish.

How broadcast stations  are required to caption their local news programming is based on their DMA, or Demographic Market Area, as measured by Nielsen.  (see list here:

  • Stations in DMA 1-25 must use realtime captioning, where a captioner listens to what is said and produces captions on the fly.
  • Stations outside the top 25 DMA, may use ENT, or “Electronic Newsroom Technique,” where the station simply feeds their teleprompter text into a caption decoder.     There have been no quality mandates on ENT to date, so that viewers could end up seeing [AD LIB WEATHER ] when the weatherman was speaking, as an example.

The FCC had considered expanding the realtime caption requirement to stations in the 25-50 markets, as there are many smaller markets with large populations of people who rely on captioning (Rochester, NY, comes to mind).  The thought was that these viewers were missing out by being forced to watch sub-par ENT “captioning”.

The cable and TV industry fought back against this suggested approach.  One argument was that captioning for one station for one year is the equivalent of 3 reporter salaries (this is probably accurate).  The industry suggested a compromise that basically said they’d agree to best practices surrounding ENT captioning.    They agreed that all stations using ENT would ensure the following:

In-studio produced news, sports, weather, and entertainment programming will be scripted.

  • For weather interstitials where there may be multiple segments within a news program, weather information explaining the visual information on the screen and conveying forecast information will be scripted, although the scripts may not precisely track the words used on air.
  • Pre-produced programming will be scripted (to the extent technically feasible).
  • If live interviews or live on-the scene or breaking news segments are not scripted, stations will supplement them with crawls, textual information, or other means (to the extent technically feasible).
  • The station will provide training to all news staff on scripting for improving ENT.
  • The station will appoint an “ENT Coordinator” accountable for compliance.

We all  should be seeing better quality captions on local broadcast news in smaller markets.

At times, some stations have NO CAPTIONS at all.  That doesn’t seem right, unless they’re really really tiny stations, or some of the known scofflaws out there, e.g. a show called that doesn’t have captions.

(Above with many thanks to Heather York, VITAC captioning company)

DIY (Do It Yourself) Captioning Tools for DIY Captioning – for videos and such. See also on our site How Steno Machine works, with court reporter and captioner –




CCAC Cinema Advocacy Campaign – Show Us the Captions

CCAC FILM playing globally - Don't Leave Me Out!

CCAC FILM playing globally – Don’t Leave Me Out!

Flyer for Air Travel Access

CCAC Air Travel Access Campaign – Ongoing

Collaborative for Communication Access Via Captioning

Live Event Captioning (Norma Miller)


Slovenia,Intro,CART,Jan2015AHIHA,CCACgrant4CARTimage of person speaking with real time captioning usedInternetSocietyMeetingsGeneva2012CART in FinlandObama in VT

Founder of CCAC (Lauren Storck) with panel members at EFHOH Conference, April 2011, Vienna, Austria.

Founder of CCAC (Lauren Storck) with panel members at EFHOH Conference, April 2011, Vienna, Austria.