RESOURCES: ARTICLES, PHOTOS, AND HOW-TO – Lots of information here for Consumers, Providers and Others! Read down and down. Learn about Captioning Advocacy for Live Events (in-person and online) and for All Media. Captioning is needed by mega-millions for a bunch of very good reasons! (Read “Benefits” on “Advocacy” pages on this website.) CCAC is a CAPTIONING ADVOCACY organization.
Selected photos of captioning “in action” added to bottom of page. If used, cite CCAC web address: http://CCACAPTIONING.ORG and tell us so we can see too!
AIR TRAVEL ACCESS to fly during 2016 we hope! GO TO the ADVOCACY TAB and also the blue link here to read much more on this and get involved. Info there is a great resource for you! Go to: http://ccacaptioning.org/captioning-transportation/ with updates and good information.
CCAC EDUCATES (e.g. How To Do Captioning) and raises awareness about captioning, all part of advocacy and activism. One example – go to this document and read down for DIY video captioning: https://docs.google.com/document/d/144wc5uxvxjjnvB-akUcs3V1Sj15Q8PDKqbLP7IMYg8A/edit
HOW TO USE STREAMTEXT FOR LIVE CAPTION OF YOUTUBE BROADCAST – PROVIDERS TAKE NOTE – OF GENERAL INTEREST TOO: GO TO the CART Captioning link of StreamText as usual and enter the URL of the YouTube page. The customer (consumer) with the YouTube account will need to provide that to you. Then you run the event like any other event. That is the easy part. You Tube does not support deletes so you need to make sure your translations etc have completed before they are sent out. For example, using CaseCat you can use hold strokes to do this. There is also a very large delay built into the system. This will be at least 15 seconds in addition to the encoding delay. What this means is you need to listen to the live audio not thru YouTube. Then you will may or may not need to add in a delay to sync it up. Edits or corrections invited anytime to CCACaptioning@gmail.com
FROM DCMP – check this resource out too – https://www.dcmp.org/ciy/
Join the CCAC now, don’t wait, to use the CCAC active members’ forum online for questions, suggestions, support, fun, and captioning advocacy, for early information on captioning news, and to be eligible for Free Live Captioning for an event you want to attend. We are Consumers and Providers and many others. Groups invited to be CCAC Organization friend for a link, no obligation. Collaboration is our first name.
USE the CCAC FLYER for your meetings, news, conferences – help others JOIN the CCAC – Flyer is here: http://ccacaptioning.org/ccac-flyer/
USE THE CCAC FILM – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-epg4K7e50Q&feature=youtu.be
AND THIS FILM from CCAC (JUNE 2015) about Captioning- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePa9Ly-0nco
AND THE NEWEST CCAC MOVIE (DECEMBER 2015) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5cTKUxgG2M – WE ARE THE CCAC
HOW TO BEGIN CAPTIONING TRAINING PROGRAMS – https://docs.google.com/document/d/144wc5uxvxjjnvB-akUcs3V1Sj15Q8PDKqbLP7IMYg8A/edit This document has a new final page with MEDIA Captioning Training Ideas, Free DIY systems online, Transcript Guidelines, and more.
Becoming Accessible and Inclusive: How? CCAC is asked all the time: “How can CCAC help non-profits and small businesses (everyone and anyone) move to full inclusion of quality captioning for all their media (e.g. videos, webinars) and also for inclusion of live captioning (CART, STTR, Text Interpreting) for all public events?”
The Simple Answer: CCAC volunteers created CaptionMatch to help. Use the clearinghouse service online that walks you through the steps needed, to find a captioner and select one with pricing to fit your budget. CCAC is not a captioning company. Volunteers offer to help you find a provider for on-site or remote captioning, live or media, one time or continuing needs. Register first, and then place your request. Go to http://CaptionMatch.com – larger businesses and schools, all welcome to talk to email@example.com. This is part of the CCAC, official non-profit, community of peers.
From a consumer -“Huge thank you to CCAC Captioning for connecting me with a CART service for our event. I used a remote CART service and was able to follow the other speakers! Worked great! ”
Professional captioning services, for media, or live for meetings and events, cost money — not over- costly however! Captioning deserves a budget line in your planning like anything worthwhile, from day one, not as an after-thought. Learn more about pricing (from CaptionMatch or by contacting providers yourself). How to pay for it? Fundraising in the usual ways, or new creative ways. CCAC will brainstorm with you.
Regarding Live Captioning for any meeting or event, in general, an hour of quality real time live captioning costs around 75-120 dollars/hour, sometimes less, sometimes more. Professionals are trained, experienced, certified, and helpful in preparations and planning with you before during and after the event, The topic or content (simple or complex) may determine pricing also. Quality counts! Access and inclusion pays.
HOW TO ADD CAPTIONS TO MEDIA (VIDEOS) — (This is about adding CC post production. See above for LIVE captioning of YouTube broadcasts). Most of the world uses YouTube videos online (or Vimeo, or similar). There are FREE automatic machine-generated speech-to-text “captions” or “subtitles” however many of these or most are craptions – not useable, jumbled and not accurate. Important to edit and correct them using free tutorials online, e.g. for YouTube (Google) here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCZ-cxfxzvk&feature=youtu.be.
Free Online Course for Video Captioning – https://www.udemy.com/open-closed-captioning-effectivity-on-a-budget/ and also this vlog from November 2014: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_H57rNkEZuI&list=UUIply_-paQtXeEJ5Y2-jxeA&feature=share&index=21 – detailed, short lectures, worth watching!
TUTORIAL for YouTube video captioning: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCZ-cxfxzvk&feature=youtu.be.%20 and read: https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/2734796?hl=en and also now this one: https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/2734799?hl=en&ref_topic=3014331
FOR WINDOWS MOVIE MAKER – http://www.wikihow.com/Add-Text-to-a-Movie-in-Windows-Movie-Maker
HINT: GOOGLE YOUR QUESTION AND FIND THE SYSTEM THAT WORKS FOR YOU.
ALL ABOUT CAPTION FILES! good article here, http://ht.ly/TVKOF, October 2015 from a captioning company.
NEW: CCAC LIST OF GROUPS & INDIVIDUALS OFFERING FREE VIDEO CAPTIONING:
https://twitter.com/subtitleYouTube (a CCAC member)
nomorecraptions.com (CCAC member)
https://amara.org/en/teams/captions-requested/videos/ (CCAC friend)
http://ccacaptioning.org/resources/. (CCAC member)
Any others? Anyplace in the world? Email us.
Also see this company’s listing of DIY media captioning information, http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/guide/adding-closed-captions-to-flash-videos – more DIY information from the CCAC below and on links.
FCC Video (Internet) Captioning Rules in USA – http://www.fcc.gov/guides/captioning-internet-video-programming
BEST PRACTICES: START HERE – https://www.dcmp.org/public_content/ai/captioningkey/ and also “google” best practices captioning to find WGBH info, various University info, and much more. Or ask the CCAC.
TECHNOLOGY HINT FOR ONLINE LIVE EVENTS (e.g. Web Conferences): to show live captioning with the video stream (not in separate window) – StreamText can be integrated with Adobe Connect videoconferencing so viewers can see video and transcript at the same time. Plus reporter has control over who sees the transcript. It’s around $300 a year. Talk to StreamText directly.
THEATER LIVE CAPTIONING (with thanks to Geva Theater, Rochester, NY who provided this summary of recent inclusion of captioning, Oct 2015): Using a scrolling LED sign with stand that sits house right of the stage and is connected to a laptop that is loaded with the software CaptionView and Microsoft Word (scripts converted from PDF files to Word documents so they can be properly edited, formatted, and loaded into CaptionView). Start up costs to bring captioning in house were around $10,000 and annual operation and maintenance costs about $3,000 for a 7-show season (adding 1 additional stage, 3 additional productions, and increasing each of the 10 productions from 1 to 3 captioned performances will increase the annual cost to about $4,500-$5,0000 total per year), with about 8 in-house operators. The start up costs were covered by donations and support from local hearing loss groups. Another source to learn similar methods is StageText in the UK and TDF in NY (theater development foundation).
PERSONAL STORIES, YOUR OWN INCLUDED are one of the best sorts of advocacy. As well as asking for captioning regularly. Need ideas? Join the CCAC! You belong.
CCAC – the place to be for captioning advocacy! Information, education, raising awareness, and many timely advocacy actions from local to national to global. CCAC is a 501(3)(c) non-profit organization. CCAC invites organizational friends also. Your contribution is tax-deductible. We are all volunteer citizen advocates.
SURVEY OF LIVE CAPTIONING METHODS – informative study from 2012 published late in 2014 by CCAC provider member in Germany: – http://www.kombia.de/fileadmin
NEW IFHOH/WFD SURVEY COMING IN 2016 – stay tuned.
GOOD VIDEO ABOUT LIVE CAPTIONING (CART/STTR) IN EDUCATION AND ALL OVER THE PLACE, ENJOY: http://www.washington.edu/doit/videos/index.php?vid=57
Hot Topic: Live event online with live Captioning online at same time, not so hard to do! Read http://blogs.wcode.org/2014/
ADVOCACY ARTICLES for wide distribution: please include CCAC web address, http://ccacaptioning.org in all distribution – 1. The Hearing Journal: http://tinyurl.com/d6cff2o Benefits of Captioning. 2. Hearing Health & Technology Matters; http://hearinghealthmatters.org/hearingviews/2013/the-proven-benefits-of-real-time-captioning-should-be-available-to-all/ –The Case for Captioning also this one – 3. http://ccacaptioning.org/ccac-survey-captioning-users-describe-experience-and-value-of-captioning-inclusion/ and also 4. The Power of Captioning – http://hearinghealthmatters.org/betterhearingconsumer/2011/the-power-of-captioning-by-lauren-e-storck-ph-d/
2015 – JUST DO IT: More organizations are learning how to STREAM events live online also with quality LIVE captioning! You can do this too, you can ask for it, don’t leave us out! Stream your events, conferences and more with quality captioning online. Your audience will grow, learn more, and remember it. Search engines will find your organization.
Web Access – general guidelines for all web content to be accessible to all (included here to note captioning requirements: http://webaim.org/standards/wcag/checklist#!
EDUCATION: article about effectiveness of RTC (real time captioning) in education. Very important study! We have read the original research and had A chat with author. The data shows that RTC (simulated CART) improves learning (measured by memory test) both for deaf students, and hearing students too! Nine percent improvement and 149% improvement (hearing and deaf respectively). http://www.ncra.org/Specialty/contentCARTP.cfm?ItemNumber=9095. Steinfeld, A. (1999). The Benefit to the Deaf of Real-Time Captions in a Mainstream Classroom Environment. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Background of CCAC Mission: Globally, newest figures are that 1/5 persons has a hearing loss or deafness – mega-millions of citizens. That’s 20% of the world. Many more need quality captioning due to language or other concerns (autism, tinnitus, translations, search engines). Captioning is language! It’s not just another device or machine. Understand the vitality and necessity for inclusion of quality captioning universally, see http://tinyurl.com/bnw74vb. Also, millions of others, hearing people included, depend on captioning for learning languages, literacy, inclusion with learning differences, and business reasons. Without captioning, millions are excluded and disrespected. (See: http://tinyurl.com/csrkj67 for the Johns Hopkins research outlining that 1/5 people have a hearing loss – a number that reaches 48 million now in USA alone.) This literature review http://research.gallaudet.edu/Publications/ASL_Users.pdf, estimates the number of people using SL (sign language) in the USA (deaf/hoh and also others who are not deaf or hoh such as families, teachers, interpreters) – varies from 100,000 to 15 million – a huge range (because a total here includes some deaf and many who serve them with SL). Other reports use the number of 500,000 SL users in the USA.. Even taking the very high estimate, it is smaller than popular and press understanding when compared to a total of about 48 million in the USA with hearing loss and deafness. Using an estimate that 5% of this total of 48 million (2.6 million, fitting into the range mentioned) may use signing primarily (new research needed), in the USA alone, over 45 million citizens can benefit from quality captioning in many everyday situations. They do not use sign language! Other countries will have similar percentages. There’s a huge and unfulfilled need to include captioning universally for equality.
2012 Report of interest: http://www.ntid.rit.edu/sites/default/files/number_of_persons_who_are_deaf_or_hard_of_hearing.pdf showing 3/5% of deaf/hoh nationally (and by cities in USA), e.g. if 3.5% of deaf and hoh in total, SLusers in total population guesstimate of about 1/5 of that (0.7%)? or, conservatively, will be less than 2%.
More on statistics (May 2016): Many ask us about numbers of deaf/hoh and numbers of SL users. In USA and in UK, it’s generally reported that from 1-2% of all deafhoh use SL and the rest of millions of deaf/hoh do not. These others do not all need Captioning yet many or most do and benefit from captioning. Add millions of others without any hearing loss who use captioning, and numbers are important. In USA there are about 50 million with hearing loss/deafness (same figure used by HLAA). See above for the reference.
In UK it’s reported that there are 50,000 SL users among 10 million in the population. See http://limpingchicken.com/2016/05/06/watch-brilliant-public-information-style-video-goes-viral-for-deaf-awareness-week/ made by BSL Bridge.That is 0.5% yet may be an underestimate.
The number of deaf/hoh and the number who use SL is not the same. There will be many others without deafness/hearing loss who SL (teachers, families, agencies, etc.)
http://libguides.gallaudet.edu/content.php?pid=114804&sid=991835 is a reference from Gallaudet that puts the numbers of SL users in the USA (all, not only deaf/hoh) at from 500000 to 2 million (a wide range) and smaller than above citation. Even then the highest figure is 4% (including all, not only deaf/hoh).
The bottom line is that advocacy for your method of communication is important, whatever it is. We see the media and many leaders globally suggesting directly or indirectly that SL is the language of most deaf/hoh and this is not so. It’s important for millions of other deaf/hoh good people to advocate for quality captioning in all places needed, and educate others too.
RESOURCES TO HELP YOU FIND CAPTIONING – TO ADVOCATE FOR YOUR SELF AND OTHERS:
A video about “remote CART” – many real time captioning providers are now offering CART from a distance – they can provide similar real time live speech-to-text by sending their output to your own location, your computer or wireless device, in any part of the world! See more below, and this CCAC video too: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qeSRPuKqHs&feature=share
CART ADVOCACY – Important court case – CCAC member is participant and much more about all things Captioning Advocacy on different page -see tabs along top of any page): http://us8thcircuitcourtofappealsopinions.justia.com/2013/01/15/argenyi-v-creighton-university/ – there are few court cases about CART that we know about. One other is in process now. If you have additional information, please email to us, CCACaptioning@gmail.com – so far, the courts (in USA) support live captions as required by ADA laws for equal communication access.
A summary of CCAC objectives and activities that you can use in your own blog or newsletter. Newer articles on the main advocacy page on this website.
Information about disability rights – the Law and re ADA and the laws, see below also, and this NAD page too – http://www.nad.org/issues/technology/captioning/when-required APRIL 2013: Given the importance of the CVAA and rules that apply starting now for Internet captioning, we put this good summary from the FCC about TV captioning here: http://transition.fcc.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/closedcaption.pdf. You are invited into CCAC membership discussions going on now, and updates or corrections to this welcome via email to the CCAC. And this important page also for the schedule: http://www.fcc.gov/guides/captioning-internet-video-programming extending out to 2016 for implementation. ==
DIY (Do It Yourself) Captioning Tools for DIY Captioning – for videos and such. See also http://ccacaptioning.com/CCAC%20CART%20Captioning%20Technologies%20Database%20January%202012.htm on our site How Steno Machine works, with court reporter and captioner – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__JkYUrIglg
See also this DIY resource (2014) – http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/guide/adding-closed-captions-to-flash-videos
CART is called STTR in the UK (speech to text reporting) and in some other countries. Live Captioning has many names! (including Open Captioning).
FAQs about CART – Worth reading about LIVE CAPTIONING (CART, STTR, Text Interpreting, OC) This resource from CCAC is one of the few online about Open Captioning. Many pages about closed captioning (for media).
REMOTE CART Information from CCAC Volunteers – What You Need:
NOTE TO ALL: the Audio for remote service is very important! Skype is routinely used, but sometimes “breaks down.” Other to-be-set-up-and-tested-in-advance-also” systems include: phone for all speakers, google hangout, and “Join Me” (free or paid versions). Please send us other choices you use for Remote Live Captioning.
To Do Remote:
On the consumer’s side: * An internet connection, preferably wired to send audio. Can be wireless to receive captions. * At least one computer, though two (one connected to sound system to send audio, one close to consumer to receive captions via web browser) is often ideal. (or wireless device such as ipad, iphone, other mobiles) * A direct line in to a sound system or, in a pinch, a good quality microphone. * Voice over IP software such as Skype or Google Chat (we are told that if remote CART is for one person only, at times the iphone or other mobile can also act as the audio, with speaker on and a phone call if that is steady enough – not losing connection, etc.)
On the provider’s side: * An internet connection. Wired is strongly preferred. * Steno machine and software (e.g. Streamtext, though there are other options) * Good quality headphones * The same voice over IP software used on the consumer’s side If there are multiple consumers, they can each view captions on their own computers/tablets/smartphones, or the captions can be displayed to the entire room via a projection screen (or large monitor). There is usually no additional charge from Streamtext unless there are more than 50 views from separate devices at one time. Using a phone line is being phased out in favor of VOIP connections due to lower cost and better quality (voice over Internet) though sometimes at the expense of dependability (since connections can drop more easily than over phone line). If a school or other event has an AV system also (audiovisual), it is preferred in terms of audio quality and usually an AV person can handle the connections without too much difficulty. The AV person needs to stay and monitor the connection to make sure that the connection hasn’t dropped; if it does, they’ll need to accept the new connection when the CART provider redials. When the consumer is using the computer sending the audio, they’re able to accept the redial by themselves, and are usually a little quicker on the uptake, since they’re essentially monitoring the captions themselves already. Thanks to Mirabai Knight, StenoKnight.com, for above information. She is a CCAC Member and Professional Provider in the New York area and also provides
REMOTE CART continued – a nice video prepared for the CCAC by another provider: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qeSRPuKqHs&feature=share
UNOFFICIAL CCAC LISTING OF SYSTEMS USED BY PROVIDERS FOR REMOTE CART, 2013. Provider is at a distance anyplace, using Internet (cellular or wireless) and consumer reading real time text on laptop, ipad, iphone, or similar) — Streamtext, 1CapApp, Teamviewer, Total Eclipse, Teleview, Gather Place 4; free Screenleap.com, joinme.com, Webex, Gotomeeting…… Skype is often used for audio. Older page of info for remote here: http://cart-info.org/remotecart.html (We invite updates or further information about CART, Remote CART, or any captioning systems.)
From a CCAC Provider Member – For the record, CART providers are certified starting at 180 WPM, but most professionals believe this is far too slow a speed for a competent provider and 220 WPM with 99.9% accuracy (or one error/omission every four pages) is a good baseline, though for more challenging jobs, a solid 240 WPM is even better. Some speakers go as high as 260 or 280 WPM (usually in short bursts)…when that happens, most CART providers will have to condense or paraphrase somewhat to get the most important material, similarly to what C-Print or Typewell does. CART providers are able to maintain verbatim accuracy until that threshold, nearly 100 WPM higher than the text-expansion services can manage. Re-speaking and voice recognition “CART” is also being used now. Whether this is to be called CART/STTR also remains controversial and undecided. These are automated systems using a person and a machine trained to the one person’s voice. Speed and accuracy standards, we are told, are being developed. CCAC welcomes updates and edits to anything on this page via email.
BROADCAST CAPTIONING (MEDIA CAPTIONING – TV, INTERNET, AND RADIO):
- Things to Know About Broadcast Captioning (broadcast captioning is not CART, yet there is some overlap, e.g. streaming CART online for real time communication access; broadcasting a video online with real time CART on-site also displayed for Internet viewers and participants). Broadcast captioning is also called Media Captioning.
CCAC ARTICLES – HELP YOU ADVOCATE – IF YOU ARE A CONSUMER OR PROVIDER! CCAC “CATEGORIES OF LIFE” that require CART and Captioning:
- Captioning and CART in the Performing Arts
- Captioning and CART for Elder Law Attorneys
- Captioning and CART for Education-Literacy– Graduations
- Captioning and CART in Healthcare
- Captioning and CART in Government
- Captioning and CART in Entertainment
- Captioning and CART in Employment
- Captioning and CART in the Courts
- Captioning and CART in Sports
- Captioning and CART in the Community: Clubs, Religious Organizations, and other Social Groups
- Captioning and CART in Transportation
- Captioning and CART in Funeral Homes – if you cannot open document on that page, try going to this version: https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/11616685/FuneralBrochure-Final-2-091.pdf
- CCAC welcomes more articles as above. Submit via email soon.
Research and Data: The CCAC also engages in research activities and collects data related to captioning services, needs, or advocacy. One result of this is the database of CART and Captioning Technologies, available on the link here.
TELEVISION CAPTIONING IN THE USA: – new quality rules after an FCC order from February 2014. We are talking here about requirements for news stations that reach small areas, and how the recent FCC rules affect those stations. (Small means smaller population, and/or revenue of under a certain amount). Here’s a quick summary:
First, almost all channels are required to caption 20 hours/day, 6a-2a. There are exceptions, including new stations (they have four years to comply), channels with revenue under $3 million, and channels that are not in English or Spanish.
How broadcast stations are required to caption their local news programming is based on their DMA, or Demographic Market Area, as measured by Nielsen. (see list here: http://www.tvb.org/media/file/TVB_Market_Profiles_Nielsen_TVHH_DMA_Ranks_2013-2014.pdf)
- Stations in DMA 1-25 must use realtime captioning, where a captioner listens to what is said and produces captions on the fly.
- Stations outside the top 25 DMA, may use ENT, or “Electronic Newsroom Technique,” where the station simply feeds their teleprompter text into a caption decoder. There have been no quality mandates on ENT to date, so that viewers could end up seeing [AD LIB WEATHER ] when the weatherman was speaking, as an example.
The FCC had considered expanding the realtime caption requirement to stations in the 25-50 markets, as there are many smaller markets with large populations of people who rely on captioning (Rochester, NY, comes to mind). The thought was that these viewers were missing out by being forced to watch sub-par ENT “captioning”.
The cable and TV industry fought back against this suggested approach. One argument was that captioning for one station for one year is the equivalent of 3 reporter salaries (this is probably accurate). The industry suggested a compromise that basically said they’d agree to best practices surrounding ENT captioning. They agreed that all stations using ENT would ensure the following:
In-studio produced news, sports, weather, and entertainment programming will be scripted.
- For weather interstitials where there may be multiple segments within a news program, weather information explaining the visual information on the screen and conveying forecast information will be scripted, although the scripts may not precisely track the words used on air.
- Pre-produced programming will be scripted (to the extent technically feasible).
- If live interviews or live on-the scene or breaking news segments are not scripted, stations will supplement them with crawls, textual information, or other means (to the extent technically feasible).
- The station will provide training to all news staff on scripting for improving ENT.
- The station will appoint an “ENT Coordinator” accountable for compliance.
We all should be seeing better quality captions on local broadcast news in smaller markets.
At times, some stations have NO CAPTIONS at all. That doesn’t seem right, unless they’re really really tiny stations, or some of the known scofflaws out there, e.g. a show called recipe.tv that doesn’t have captions.
(Above with many thanks to Heather York, VITAC captioning company)