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Lots of information here! Read all the way down to learn about Captioning Advocacy (asking for and including captioning) – and  join us soon inside the actual CCAC organization (see tab “join” above) to be with our active members’ forum online where the action is every day! (digest and abridged subscriptions give you only one email a day). Invite others! The more the better for the CCAC mission – you are needed! 

USE the CCAC FLYER for your meetings, news, conferences – help others JOIN the CCAC – Flyer is here:

Becoming Accessible and Inclusive: How? CCAC is asked all the time: “How can CCAC help non-profits and small businesses (everyone and anyone) move to full inclusion of quality captioning for all their media (e.g. videos, webinars) and also for inclusion of live captioning (CART, STTR, Text Interpreting) for all public events?”

The Simple Answer: CCAC volunteers created CaptionMatch to help. Learn more and use this free service online that walks you through the steps needed, to find a captioner and select one with pricing to fit your budget. CCAC is not a captioning company. We help you learn the steps. Register first, and then place your request. Go to – larger businesses welcome also for media and live captioning services (one time or continuing services over days, months, whatever).

From a consumer -“Huge thank you to CCAC Captioning for connecting me with a CART service for our event. I used a remote CART service and was able to follow the other speakers! Worked great! ” 

Professional captioning services, for media, or live for meetings and events, cost money — not over- costly however! Captioning deserves a budget line in your planning like anything worthwhile, from day one, not as an after-thought. Learn more about pricing (from CaptionMatch or by contacting providers yourself). How to pay for it? Fundraising in the usual ways, or new creative ways. CCAC will brainstorm with you.

Regarding Live Captioning for any meeting or event, in general, an hour of quality real time live captioning costs around 75-100 dollars/hour, sometimes more. Professionals are trained, experienced, certified, and helpful in preparations and planning with you before during and after the event, The content (simple or complex) may determine pricing. Quality counts!

Media – Videos: Most of the world uses YouTube videos online (or Vimeo, or similar). There are free automatic machine-generated speech-to-text “captions” or “subtitles” however some call these craptions. Most are jumbled and not accurate text. Important to  edit and correct them using free tutorials online, e.g. for YouTube (Google) instructions for quality captioning here: 

Free Online Course for Video Captioning – and also this vlog from November 2014: – detailed, short lectures, worth watching!


Any others? Anyplace in the world? Email us.

Also see this company’s listing of DIY media captioning information, – more DIY information from the CCAC below and on links.

FCC Video (Internet) Captioning Rules in USA –

Join and support the one and only CCAC – the place to be for captioning advocacy! Information, education, raising awareness, and many timely advocacy actions from local to national to global. CCAC is a 501(3)(c) non-profit organization. CCAC invites organizational friends also. Your contribution is tax-deductible. We are all volunteer citizen advocates, internationally. 

SURVEY OF LIVE CAPTIONING METHODS GLOBALLY – informative study from 2012 published late in 2014 by CCAC provider member in Germany: –

Hot Topic: Live event online with live Captioning online at same time, not so hard to do! Read

ADVOCACY ARTICLES for wide distribution: please include CCAC web address, in all distribution – 1. The Hearing Journal: Benefits of Captioning. 2. Hearing Health & Technology Matters; The Case for Captioning  2013 CCAC and also this one – 3.

2015 – JUST DO IT: More organizations are learning how to STREAM events live online also with quality LIVE captioning! You can do this too, you can ask for it, don’t leave us out! Stream your events, conferences and more with quality captioning online. Your audience will grow, learn more, and remember it. Search engines will find your organization.


Web Access – general guidelines for all web content to be accessible to all (included here to note captioning requirements:!

EDUCATION: article about effectiveness of RTC (real time captioning) in education. Very important study! We have read the original research and had A chat with author. The data shows that RTC (simulated CART) improves learning (measured by memory test) both for deaf students, and hearing students too! Nine percent improvement and 149% improvement (hearing and deaf respectively). Steinfeld, A. (1999). The Benefit to the Deaf of Real-Time Captions in a Mainstream Classroom Environment. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.


Background of CCAC Mission: Globally, newest figures are that 1/5 persons has a hearing loss or deafness – mega-millions of citizens. Many more need quality captioning due to language or other concerns (autism, tinnitus, translations, search engines). Captioning is language! It’s not just another device or machine. Understand the vitality and necessity for inclusion of quality captioning universally, see Also, millions of others, hearing people included, depend on captioning for learning languages, literacy, inclusion with learning differences, and business reasons. Without captioning, millions are excluded and disrespected. (See: for the Johns Hopkins research outlining that 1/5 people have a hearing loss – a number that reaches 48 million now in USA alone.) This literature review, estimates the number of people using SL (sign language) in the USA (deaf/hoh and also others who are not deaf or hoh such as families, teachers, interpreters) – varies from 100,000 to 15 million – a huge range (because a total here includes some deaf and many who serve them with SL). Other reports use the number of 500,000 SL users in the USA.. Even taking the very high estimate, it is smaller than popular and press understanding when compared to a total of about 48 million in the USA with hearing loss and deafness. Using an estimate that 5% of this total of 48 million (2.6 million, fitting into the range mentioned) may use signing primarily (new research needed), in the USA alone, over 45 million citizens can benefit from quality captioning in many everyday situations. They do not use sign language! Other countries will have similar percentages. There’s a huge and unfulfilled need to include captioning universally for equality.


A video about “remote CART” – many real time captioning providers are now offering CART from a distance – they can provide similar real time live speech-to-text by sending their output to your own location, your computer or wireless device, in any part of the world! See more below, and this CCAC video too:

CART ADVOCACY – Important court case – CCAC member is participant and much more about all things Captioning Advocacy on different page -see tabs along top of any page): – there are few court cases about CART that we know about. One other is in process now. If you have additional information, please email to us, – so far, the courts (in USA) support live captions as required by ADA laws for equal communication access.

summary of CCAC objectives and activities that you can use in your own blog or newsletter. Newer articles on the main advocacy page on this website.

Information about disability rights – the Law and re ADA and the laws, see below also, and this NAD page too – APRIL 2013: Given the importance of the CVAA and rules that apply starting now for Internet captioning, we put this good summary from the FCC about TV captioning here: You are invited into CCAC membership discussions going on now, and updates or corrections to this welcome via email to the CCAC. And this important page also for the schedule: extending out to 2016 for implementation. ==

DIY (Do It Yourself) Captioning Tools for DIY Captioning – for videos and such. See also on our site How Steno Machine works, with court reporter and captioner –

See also this DIY resource (2014) –

CART (STTR in Europe) and Captioning Technology and Processes

FAQs about CART – “CART” is now called CART Captioning – or RTC – for real time captioning – or simply LIVE CAPTIONING – also called STTR (speech to text reporting) and Text Interpreting (in northern Europe).

REMOTE CART Information from CCAC Volunteers – What You Need: 

On the consumer’s side: * An internet connection, preferably wired to send audio. Can be wireless to receive captions. * At least one computer, though two (one connected to sound system to send audio, one close to consumer to receive captions via web browser) is often ideal. (or wireless device such as ipad, iphone, other mobiles) * A direct line in to a sound system or, in a pinch, a good quality microphone. * Voice over IP software such as Skype or Google Chat (we are told that if remote CART is for one person only, at times the iphone or other mobile can also act as the audio, with speaker on and a phone call if that is steady enough – not losing connection, etc.)

On the provider’s side: * An internet connection. Wired is strongly preferred. * Steno machine and software (e.g. Streamtext, though there are other options) * Good quality headphones * The same voice over IP software used on the consumer’s side If there are multiple consumers, they can each view captions on their own computers/tablets/smartphones, or the captions can be displayed to the entire room via a projection screen (or large monitor). There is usually no additional charge from Streamtext unless there are more than 50 views from separate devices at one time. Using a phone line is being phased out in favor of VOIP connections due to lower cost and better quality (voice over Internet) though sometimes at the expense of dependability (since connections can drop more easily than over phone line). If a school or other event has an AV system also (audiovisual), it is preferred in terms of audio quality and usually an AV person can handle the connections without too much difficulty. The AV person needs to stay and monitor the connection to make sure that the connection hasn’t dropped; if it does, they’ll need to accept the new connection when the CART provider redials. When the consumer is using the computer sending the audio, they’re able to accept the redial by themselves, and are usually a little quicker on the uptake, since they’re essentially monitoring the captions themselves already. Thanks to Mirabai Knight,, for above information. She is a CCAC Member and Professional Provider in the New York area and also provides

REMOTE CART continued – a nice video prepared for the CCAC by another provider:

UNOFFICIAL CCAC LISTING OF SYSTEMS USED BY PROVIDERS FOR REMOTE CART, 2013. Provider is at a distance anyplace, using Internet (cellular or wireless) and consumer reading real time text on laptop, ipad, iphone, or similar) — Streamtext, 1CapApp, Teamviewer, Total Eclipse, Teleview, Gather Place 4; free,, Webex, Gotomeeting…… Skype is often used for audio. Older page of info for remote here: (We invite updates or further information about CART, Remote CART, or any captioning systems.)

MORE “CART” information:

From a CCAC Provider Member – For the record, CART providers are certified starting at 180 WPM, but most professionals believe this is far too slow a speed for a competent provider and 220 WPM with 99.9% accuracy (or one error/omission every four pages) is a good baseline, though for more challenging jobs, a solid 240 WPM is even better. Some speakers go as high as 260 or 280 WPM (usually in short bursts)…when that happens, most CART providers will have to condense or paraphrase somewhat to get the most important material, similarly to what C-Print or Typewell does. CART providers are able to maintain verbatim accuracy until that threshold, nearly 100 WPM higher than the text-expansion services can manage. Re-speaking and voice recognition “CART” is also being used now. Whether this is to be called CART/STTR also remains controversial and undecided. These are automated systems using a person and a machine trained to the one person’s voice. Speed and accuracy standards, we are told, are being developed. CCAC welcomes updates and edits to anything on this page via email.


  • Things to Know About Broadcast Captioning (broadcast captioning is not CART, yet there is some overlap, e.g. streaming CART online for real time communication access; broadcasting a video online with real time CART on-site also displayed for Internet viewers and participants). Broadcast captioning is also called Media Captioning.


Research and Data: The CCAC also engages in research activities and collects data related to captioning services, needs, or advocacy. One result of this is the database of CART and Captioning Technologies, available on the link here.

TELEVISION CAPTIONING IN THE USA: – new quality rules after an FCC order from February 2014. We are talking here about requirements for news stations that reach small areas, and how the recent FCC rules affect those stations.  (Small means smaller population, and/or revenue of under a certain amount). Here’s a quick summary:

First, almost all channels are required to caption 20 hours/day, 6a-2a.   There are exceptions, including new stations (they have four years to comply), channels with revenue under $3 million, and channels that are not in English or Spanish.

How broadcast stations  are required to caption their local news programming is based on their DMA, or Demographic Market Area, as measured by Nielsen.  (see list here:

  • Stations in DMA 1-25 must use realtime captioning, where a captioner listens to what is said and produces captions on the fly.
  • Stations outside the top 25 DMA, may use ENT, or “Electronic Newsroom Technique,” where the station simply feeds their teleprompter text into a caption decoder.     There have been no quality mandates on ENT to date, so that viewers could end up seeing [AD LIB WEATHER ] when the weatherman was speaking, as an example.

The FCC had considered expanding the realtime caption requirement to stations in the 25-50 markets, as there are many smaller markets with large populations of people who rely on captioning (Rochester, NY, comes to mind).  The thought was that these viewers were missing out by being forced to watch sub-par ENT “captioning”.

The cable and TV industry fought back against this suggested approach.  One argument was that captioning for one station for one year is the equivalent of 3 reporter salaries (this is probably accurate).  The industry suggested a compromise that basically said they’d agree to best practices surrounding ENT captioning.    They agreed that all stations using ENT would ensure the following:

In-studio produced news, sports, weather, and entertainment programming will be scripted.

  • For weather interstitials where there may be multiple segments within a news program, weather information explaining the visual information on the screen and conveying forecast information will be scripted, although the scripts may not precisely track the words used on air.
  • Pre-produced programming will be scripted (to the extent technically feasible).
  • If live interviews or live on-the scene or breaking news segments are not scripted, stations will supplement them with crawls, textual information, or other means (to the extent technically feasible).
  • The station will provide training to all news staff on scripting for improving ENT.
  • The station will appoint an “ENT Coordinator” accountable for compliance.

We all  should be seeing better quality captions on local broadcast news in smaller markets.

At times, some stations have NO CAPTIONS at all.  That doesn’t seem right, unless they’re really really tiny stations, or some of the known scofflaws out there, e.g. a show called that doesn’t have captions.

(Above with many thanks to Heather York, VITAC captioning company)